dna strand

GENETIC

Genetic Disorders

Genetic disorders are diseases due to abnormality in one’s DNA (in medical terms, Deoxyribonucleic acid). These abnormalities may be associated with just a single or multiple genes and chromosomes. Common cases are already found from before birth. Abnormalities may be observed due to little mutation on a single gene or addition/subtraction of a chromosome from a normal count of 23 pairs. Genetic disorders are rare in nature. In statistics, there is only one person every one million who incur genetic disease.

There are three levels of genetic disorders. The first level involves single gene disorders. This level indicates disorders which result from mutation on a single gene. This causes the gene to be altered with some of its parts missing. The second level involves abnormalities in chromosome.  This level incurs disorders due to chromosome changes. It can happen to the entire chromosome or even just a large segment of them is missing. There are also cases where duplication of chromosomes occurs. The third level involves disorders in multi-factorial. The disorders which result on this level are due to mutations of multiple genes. Compared with the first and second level, genetic disorders on this level may be obtained in the environment.

Here are some examples of disorders in each level.

First Level: Single-Gene Disorders

Second Level: Chromosome Abnormalities

Third Level: Multi-factorial Disorders

 

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